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Eric Reyes
Eric Reyes

Gambling Addiction €? Discerning Fact From Fiction


Such a disjunction is nothing new; the Victorians, it appears, invented it. In Gambling in the Nineteenth-Century English Novel: "A Leprosy Is O'er the Land, "Michael Flavin calls attention to the emergence of this conflicting attitude in Victorian society. As the nineteenth century wore on, he explains, gambling became increasingly both a commercial success and the subject of moral condemnation. Yet, "the conflict between the desire to control working-class recreation and the desire to make a profit from it was won by the entrepreneurs over the moralists" (42). (No doubt this gives us a clue to the fate of Indiana casinos.)




Gambling Addiction – Discerning Fact from Fiction


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Flavin traces this and other gambling-related issues in his study of gambling in the nineteenth-century English novel. He details the gambling that dots the historical landscape of nineteenth-century Britain. He unearths a sizable territory of nonfiction, melodrama, anti-gambling tracts, and parliamentary papers...


Reigning over Detroit from the 1920s to the 1930s, the gang was usually led by members of the Bernstein family and comprised of immigrants from the city's lower east side, according to the historical society. The gang grew to such prominence before 1930 they controlled all of Detroit's gambling, liquor, and drug trade and were untouchable legally since people were too afraid to testify against them.


Albert Mohler: Yeah, and I think that's a very important point. And especially when we consider that fact that in a secular mind creation is more ex nihilo in the minds of the people who are calling themselves creatives. There's very little acknowledgement of the fact that God, the Creator, made human beings in His image. I love Tolkien's expression there of being subcreators. But he's given us all this stuff from which we create, and imagination that, so far as we know, rather confidently, no other animal has. And so it is an act of glory to God to create.


There is a moral obligation to protect from dissemination any and all personal information, of any type, that has been obtained on the patient by any and all health care professionals at any medical facility. The justification for the protection of this right is integral to the very provision of health care itself. It is essential that there exist a relationship of trust between the patient and any health care professional. This is so because there is a direct correlation between the trust that a patient places in a health care professional to keep in confidence any and all information of a personal nature that surfaces within the context of their clinical relationship and the extent to which that patient can be expected to be forthcoming with full and accurate information about oneself, which is necessary in order for the proper diagnosis and treatment of the patient to even be possible. In fact, the absence of such trust, either well-founded or not, in the mind of a person who is considering whether to enter a patient-health care professional relationship can be sufficient to keep that person from entering such a relationship at all.


Palliative sedation, as the monitored use of medications, including sedatives and opioids, among others, to provide relief from otherwise unmitigated and excruciating physiological, among other types of, pain or distress by inducing any of a number of degrees of unconsciousness, can be similarly problematic depending on whether and to what extent the pain or distress of the patient in question is managed appropriately. If managed well, palliative sedation need not be a causal factor in hastening the death of the patient; however, if it is not managed well, in theory, palliative care can be such a causal factor.


Since the discovery of the molecular structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the molecule that contains the genetic instructions that are necessary for all living organisms to develop and to reproduce, in 1953, and since the completion of the mapping of the human genome, popularly known as the Human Genome Project, that is, the identification of the complete and exact sequencing of the billions of elements that make up the DNA code of the human body, some fifty years later, a vast amount of research has been conducted in the area of disease-causing mutations as causes of many human genetic disorders. This research has also allowed for the creation of literally thousands of genetic tests, the purpose of which is to detect, both in the case of prospective parents and at the fetal stage of the development of human offspring, those genetic mutations that are responsible, in part or in whole, for many non-fatal and fatal conditions and diseases. Furthermore, this research has allowed for the editing of human genes, in an effort to proactively disable some genetic mutations, in the case of adults, children, and newborns as well as in the fetal stage of development. The information derived from genetic testing, more often than not, is anything but definitive; in other words, the results of the vast majority of genetic tests are predictive of the probability that the disease or condition for which the testing was done will actually bear out. Whether such probabilities are low, moderate, or high, many other factors, especially environmental ones, can also be contributing factors. Further, while many genetic tests are available for the detection of conditions and diseases for which there is, at present, a cure, many other genetic tests are able to be conducted for conditions and diseases for which there are no cures. This fact raises the obvious question of whether specific individuals do or do not want to know that there is a probability, to whatever degree, that they will fall victim to a particular condition or disease for which there is no cure.


Professor, With all due respect, I think you overreact slightly to the movie. I recently bought the DVD from blockbuster without ever having seen it, I just hoped it might be a fun "western/samuri" movie and it turned out to be much better than I had anticipated. But you should note that I'm here now because it sparked some interest in the accuracy of the portrayal, and voila, I read your excellent analysis.However, I think that films like these are trying to portray a perspective of an historic period or event, and not necessarily attempt to provide a 100% historically accurate representation of the time, the people, and the events. This is an artist's interpretation of a time period and some fictional characters that represent real forces/personalities that impacted the historical events, but I'm sure that the writers and directors were quite sure that not everything was 100% historically accurate. In fact, if you listen to the special feature on the DVD in which the director talks about the film, he even admits that they questioned the ninja scene because they could not get it verified if such individuals existed at that time, "some people said yes, others said no"...but there is no reason why a similar force of assassins could not have existed, since they did indeed exist in China. the notion of a ninja-like assassin using a crossbow should be no less plausible than one using a rifle, and there are advantages/disadvantages to each weapon. I don't know. I really didn't worry too much about it.Most of your criticism really was hair-splitting. So they didn't get every detail right, who cares? The problem with history is that there is NO ONE interpretation of history. There are definite events that can be said to have happened on specific dates with certain specific outcomes, and that can be portrayed in a documentary, but there is no way to put flesh to characters to breathe life into those events and not provide an interpretation of events that is inevitably biased or distorted. Look how hard it is to get an accurate eye-witness testimony about something as simple as a car accident, much less the demise of the Samuri class.I am sure that you personally could write an intersting historical treatise on those events, but I wonder how many people would read it? No insult intended, but unadulterated and clinically sanitized history is rarely very interesting to the lay person.This film could have been worse: it could have taken the perspective of the Colonel who despised the Japanese and thought they were inferior, similar to the anti-Jap films of the '40's and '50's. At least this film showed them some respect.


Some historians made incorrect generalizations about samurai prior to the Tokugawa era.:History Channel Needs to Screen Its Historians Better Why use an unknown historian who makes major assumptions (and is wrong) when there are historians who research broadly and competently? For The History Channel special on Samurai warriors, they could have chosen Stephen Turnbull, who is pretty much the western world's leading authority on Samurai. Another good choice would have been WILLIAM SCOTT WILSON. Instead we get a misinformed historian who tries to rewrite Japanese history based on a few minor examples and narrow research.In response to several erronous articles about the Samurai, I post the following response: Last Samurai: Movie Myth or History? _031202_lastsamurai.html Samurai - Not Exactly What We Thought They Were November 2003 _studies/000017.shtml The Truth about Samurai: It's Unlikely Tom Cruise's Film Will Get it Right, Says Bowdoin Professor Good Movie, But Not Good History? Sacramento Bee Sacramento, California, USA Mr. Wlliam Evans, Staff Writer CC: Editor, Sacramento Bee CC: Tconlan@bowdoin.edu CC: Stephen.turnbull@virgin.net CC: History channel CC: editor@collegenews.org CC: Stefan Lovgren, C/O Editor,National Geographic magazine Mr. Evans, Regarding your December 9, 2003 article entitled "'Samurai': The latest saber film to savor" ( ), you included information from a historian named Tom Conlan of Bowdoin College. I would like to bring your attention to an article in Archeology Magazine where Mr. Conlan's assertion of Mongols use of bombs against Samurai were found to be incorrect. His conclusion was based on an artwork depicting a Samurai being thrown from his horse during a Mongol - Samurai battle by an explosion caused by a aerial bomb. He claims that the 13th century art work was altered and the depiction of the bomb was a "later addition". The article, along with photos of the bombs recovered from sunken Mongol ships used in the attempted invasion of Japan can be seen here: Volume 56 Number 1, January/February 2003 RELICS OF THE KAMIKAZE Excavations off Japan's coast are uncovering Kublai Khan's ill-fated invasion fleet. BY JAMES P. DELGADO (excerpt) "In his recent book In Little Need of Divine Intervention, which analyzes two Japanese scrolls that depict the Mongol invasion, Bowdoin College historian Thomas Conlan suggests that a scene showing a samurai falling from his horse as a bomb explodes over him was a later addition. Conlan's research masterfully refutes many of the traditional myths and commonly held perceptions of the invasion, downplaying the number of ships and troops involved and arguing that it was not the storms but the Japanese defenders ashore, as well as confusion and a lack of coordination, that thwarted the khan's two invasions. But his suggestion that the exploding bomb is an anachronism has now been demolished by solid archaeological evidence. Moreover, when the Japanese x-rayed two intact bombs, they found that one was filled just with gunpowder while the other was packed with gunpowder and more than a dozen square pieces of iron shrapnel intended to cut down the enemy. " I am bringing attention to Conlan's mistake because I feel he has made another very serious error in his conclusions about bushido. I strongly disagree with Mr. Conlan's assertions in your recent article that "Bushido was largely created to justify the existence of warriors who had nothing to do during centuries of peacetime" . This statement is in direct conflict with a large body of Japanese historical writings. I feel that Mr. Conlan has again made a conclusion without examining all of the facts. _studies/000017.shtml He also states:"I have a very different take on what the Samurai are, were, than the later ideal," he said. The myth of the Samurai is just that. The folkloric vision of the Samurai - a loyal warrior, ready to die for his cause, riding into battle with his sword - bunk. In fact, the Samurai, or at least the ideal with which we are so familiar, were born in peace. "Loyalty has been grossly exaggerated. Warriors were interested in reward and recompense. Conlan found evidence that warriors moved from one side to another depending on the reward they would receive" Mr Conlan's comments can also be seen here: and he has appeared on National geographic specials and the History Channel's special on Samurai. I would like to make you aware that many of his generalzations are incorrect and misrepresent the values of the warriors. It should be noted that Bushido was central to a warrior's courage and there is plenty of documentation of it from the 13th century onward. In fact, a pivatol battle fought by one Torii Mototada helped enable Tokugawa Ieyasu to consolidate control over the country of Japan. Torii Mototada cited the code of Bushido in his farewell letter to his son as his reason for staying behind in a doomed castle, even though he could have easily escaped. Mototada also warned his son against aspiring for lordship and desiring money. in his last words, he asked his eldest son to raise his siblings to serve Ieyasu, "even if every province in Japan were to turn against him, you will serve his clan and his clan alone. You will never set foot in another fief till the end of time" Fushimi castle fell after its defenders founght down to the last man. Mototada killed himself rather than be taken alive. The writings of the warriors mention it specifically as their reason for sacrificing themselves and for their actions over the course of their lives. Bushido along with other social influences in Japanese life including Buddhism, Shinto, and especially Confucianism and the works of Sun Tzu were responsible for the warriors lack of fear during battle and extreme loyalty to their lords. One 16th century Samurai, Kato Kiyomasa went so far as to threaten his men with banishment or being forced to commit seppuku if they didnt follow Bushido or if they strayed to far from martial arts training by studying poetry and plays. It should also be noted that Japanese society from the earliest recorded history respected those who showed a balance in life: "BUN BU Ryo Do" "The pen and the sword in accord", if you will. A well balanced person being one who is an expert in literature and art as well as the blade. One of the early words for "warrior" consisted of two kanji representing harmony between "bu" and "bun" signifying a well rounded, educated person. From japan's earliest writings in the 8th century there are references to the "literary men and warriors whom the nation values" (Shoku Nihongi 797AD) Over and over again there are examples of writings of lords and warriors (1200ad to 1600ad) who quote buddhist philosophy and order their descendants to show compassion and mercy for the other social classes. I would be happy to cite dozens of examples of their wisdom, philosopy and devotion to "the way of the warrior". As with all examples, there are exceptions and Mr. Conlan treats the exceptions to the example as "the truth". One must keep in mind that Samurai were often fighting for their lives and those of their families. If another army stood in the way, it was "kill or be killed". There is no way to sugar coat this or make excuses. However, to say that Bushido was largely the invention of peace time is very irresponsible and an insult to those who showed great discipline and gave their lives in its name. Make no mistake about it, Bushido is what gave men their courage and carried them through the age of warfare in Japan. Mr Conlan could have not been more wrong. references: Ideals of the Samurai (1982) - Translated by William Scott Wilson. Every Chapter directly contradicts Conlan's statements. they are the actual writings of the warriors themselves from 1200AD to 1600AD. Buke No Kakun by Yoshida Yutaka The message of master Gokurakuji Hojo Shigetoki (1198-1261AD) The Chikubasho Shiba Yoshimasa (1359-1410AD) The regulations of Imagawa Ryoshun Imagawa Ryoshun (1325-1420AD) The 17 articles of Asakura Toshikage Asakura Toshikage (1428-1481AD) The 21 precepts of Hojo Soun Hojo Nagauji (1432-1519AD) The Recorded words or Asakura Soteki Asakura Norikage (1474-1555AD) The Imamizudera monogatari Takeda Shingen (1521-1573AD) Opinions in 99 articles Takeda Nobushige (1525-1561AD) Lord Nabeshima's Wall Inscriptions Nabeshima Naoshige (1538-1618AD) The Last statement of Torii mototada Torii mototada (1539-1600AD) The Precepts of kato Kiyomasa Kato Kiyomasa(1562-1611AD) Notes on regulations Kuroda Nagamasa (1568-1623AD) Sengoku No Busho by sasaki ginya (Attachment to email)-----Original Message----- From: XXXXX[mailto:XXXXXXXXX@hotmail.com] Sent: Saturday, February 28, 2004 11:05 PM To: wevans@sacbee.com Cc: editor@collegenews.org Subject: Samurai article Statements contrary to Mr. Conlan's conclusions. i have attached two statements of actual warlords who played a major role in history. i have dozens more examples which i will be happy to provide. (Conlan asserts emphasizing the samurai code "is the way of Death" was made up years after the wars were over during the Tokugawa era. as you can see here, they clearly spoke of Bushido and the duty of the warrior to die in the 16th century) in some of the examples, the warriors explicitly mention the writings of confucious and the I Ching and Sun Tsu by name. they also stress the importance of loyalty and filial loyalty. they speak of Karma and reincarnation and the importance of Buddhism. In some cases, these men were also Buddhist priests who condemned the wanton taking of life! Most of the writings stress the importance of "the way of the warrior" and what it means to live a life of courage and strength, balanced by kindess to others. Example 1: The following was written BEFORE the Tokugawa shogunate during the era of intense warfare preceeding it. Kato Kiyomasa was one of the most ferocius samurai who ever lived. He insists that his men follow Bushido, even to the point of threatening them. "The Precepts of kato Kiyomasa" here is what i found on kato Kiyomasa (1562-1611) (IT begins with a description of how one's day should begin "Rise at 4am to practice martial arts", how to dress, what kind of food to serve to guests "plain brown rice", and how a samurai should behave) "One should put forth great effort in matters of


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